A New Interpretation of Teotihuacán

In the Aztec language, Nahuatl, Teotihuacán is translated as “the place where gods were born.” In this article we hypothesize:

1) Teotihuacán was originally aligned to a former North Pole that was located near Hudson Bay

2) The Pyramid of the Moon, the Pyramid of the Sun, the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, and the Palace of the Jaguars are associated with the succession of Aztec sun gods Chalchiuhtlicue, Tlaloc, Quetzalcoatl, and Tezcatlipoca, respectively.

3) Tezcatlipoca, who was the First Sun in the Aztec creation myth of the Five Suns, corresponds to the time when the North Pole was in the Bering Sea, Quetzalcoatl was the Second Sun that corresponds to the time when the North Pole was in the Norway Sea, Tlaloc was the Third Sun that corresponds to the time when the North Pole was in Greenland, and Chalchiuhtlicue was the Fourth Sun that corresponds to the time when the North Pole was in Hudson Bay

4) The distances between The Pyramid of the Moon, the Pyramid of the Sun, the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, and the Palace of the Jaguars as measured along the Avenue of the Dead correspond to intervals between pole shifts

5)  Based on new archaeoastronomy evidence, the Pyramid of the Moon might have been the first structure built at Teotihuacán approximately 35,000 years ago

6) The other structures were probably added later just before the latest pole shift from Hudson Bay to the current North Pole, around 18,000 years ago.

Figure 1 Sites aligned to the Hudson Bay pole.

The Alignment of Teotihuacán

Various explanations have been proposed for why the city of Teotihuacán including the Avenue of the Dead, and numerous pyramids and temples are rotated 15-16° clockwise from the cardinal directions. Teotihuacán like other Mesoamerican sites is thought to have been aligned to be in harmony with the surrounding landscape. It has been suggested that Teotihuacán was originally aligned to face the direction of a nearby mountain peak, Cerro Gordo approximately 18 km to the east-southeast. Sprajc [1]  argues that this alignment also corresponds to the directions of sunrises and sunsets on two different sets of dates 260 days apart, which is the basis of Mesoamerican ritual calendars. Teotihuacán is one of the best-known examples of the group of orientations widely distributed in Mesoamerica ranging from about 15° to 18° clockwise from the cardinal directions that have become known as the 17° family of orientations [2]. 

In Before Atlantis we propose a different explanation to account for the variation in the alignment of these sites as a function of their location – that when the sites were first established the North Pole was in a different location, approximately 3400 km south of its current location in Hudson Bay. Our hypothesis is that these sites were originally aligned to face the former North Pole when they were built and are now misaligned due to a pole shift that occurred 12,000 to 18,000 years ago. This explanation not only accounts for the alignment of structures in Teotihuacán and other Mesoamerica sites but also that of structures in other parts of the world (Figure 1).

Figure 2 Locations of interest at Teotihuacán. From top to bottom: the Pyramid of the Moon, the Palace of the Jaguars, the Pyramid of the Sun, and the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl.

Pyramids of the Gods

According to the Aztec legend of the Five Suns, the past is divided into a succession of ages or “Suns” that are ruled by deities that create, sustain, and eventually destroy the world during the age in which they rule. Not surprising, the current age known as the Fifth Sun is ruled by Huitzilopochtli, a violent deity of war and human sacrifice.

At Teotihuacán, the Pyramid of the Moon, the Pyramid of the Sun, and the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl have been associated with three of the four previous Aztec gods Chalchiuhtlicue, Tlaloc, and Quetzalcoatl, respectively.

When Teotihuacán was first excavated by Leopoldo Batres in the late 1800s one of the artifacts found was a 20-ton statue buried in the Pyramid of the Moon representing Chalchiuitlicue, the goddess of the Fourth Sun. Artifacts later found inside the Pyramid of the Sun suggest that it was dedicated to Tlaloc, the god of the Third Sun. The Temple of the Feathered Serpent, which is named for the numerous feathered serpents heads carved into the facade and stairwell of the temple, was excavated from under the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, the god of the Second Sun. Although there is no indication that any of the other structures were associated with Tezcatlipoca, the god of the First Sun, it is conjectured that The Palace of the Jaguars’ might have served that purpose, as jaguars are sometimes associated with Tezcatlipoca.

Figure 3 Positions of locations along the Avenue of the Dead.

Avenue of the Dead

It has been suggested that the arrangement of the pyramids of the Sun, Moon, and Quetzalcoatl at Teotihuacán are the Aztec equivalent of the three Egyptian pyramids that match the three stars in the belt of the constellation Orion. 

We propose another explanation based on Hapgood’s theory of pole shifts. In Before Atlantis we associate the Fourth Sun with the period of time when the North Pole was in Hudson Bay, the Third Sun with the period of time when the North Pole was in Greenland, the Second Sun with the period of time when the North Pole was in the Norway Sea, and the First Sun with the period of time when the North Pole was in the Bering Sea. The Pyramid of the Moon, which is associated with the Fourth Sun, is located at the northern end of the Avenue of the Dead. If these structures are associated with gods who ruled over a succession of past ages perhaps the arrangement of these structures might be related in some way to the Five Suns. 

According to Arizona State University archaeologist Saburo Sugiyama, who excavated the Temple of the Moon in 1999 “The pyramid of the Moon started out as a rather small temple beneath what is now the five-tiered platform in front of the pyramid. After two additional construction episodes, the builders embarked on the construction of the pyramid itself.” [3]

Using the Avenue of the Dead as a yardstick let the position of the small temple in front the Pyramid of the Moon, which is dedicated to Chalchiuitlicue (C) be at one end of the yardstick. The position of the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl (Q) along the avenue is 1900 meters from C. The position of the Palace of the Jaguars, which we conjecture was dedicated to Tezcatlipoca (T) is 1720 meters from Q. If one were to talk from C to Q to T the total distance would be 1900 + 1720 = 3620 meters. 

According to our adjusted pole shift timeline, the North Pole was in Hudson Bay, which corresponds to C, 12,000 to 18,000 years ago, the Norway Sea, which corresponds to Q, 75,000 years ago, and the Bering Sea, which corresponds to T, 125,000 years ago. Plotting these times along with their corresponding distances along the Avenue of the Dead reveals a linear relation. The equation of this line is 

Y = 33.33 x D + 15,000 years

where Y is the year before present and D is the total distance from C. Previously we have not been able to determine how long the pole was in the Norway Sea or in Greenland, but the total time was assumed to be the period of the Sangamon Interglacial of 50,000 years. Using the location of the Pyramid of the Sun, which corresponds to Tlaloc and the time of the Third Sun, along the Avenue of the Dead we estimate the Norway Sea to Greenland pole shift occurred about 48,000 years ago during the Wisconsin Glaciation (which, ironically was Hapgood’s original estimate.)

Figure 4 Modified Hapgood pole shift timeline crossreferenced to locations at Teotihuacán.

Geographic “Hall of Records”

If this interpretation is correct then the distances between these structures at Teotihuacán tell us the periods of the four previous Suns. The alignment of the site to the Hudson Bay pole tells us when this layout was established but does not tell us exactly when these structures were actually built. 

Figure 5 Pyramid of the Moon was aligned to the cardinal directions and the solstices when the North Pole was in Hudson Bay.

What is interesting is that neither the platform in front of nor the Pyramid of the Moon itself appears to reference the moon in any obvious way today. The Pyramid of the Moon has a more rectangular shape than the other pyramids in Teotihuacán. Although it is difficult to accurately estimate its aspect ratio due to various irregularities between platforms, the angular span between the summer and winter solstice sunrise/sunset directions when the North Pole was in Hudson Bay is not inconsistent with the diagonals of the structure. Over the 41,000-year obliquity cycle, the solstice angles change by several degrees. Approximately 35,000 years ago when the Temple of the Moon was aligned to north, its diagonals would have been aligned to the solstices. Thus we hypothesize that the Pyramid of the Moon might have been the first structure built at Teotihuacán around that time.

Figure 6 Observations of the sun and moon at the plaza below the Pyramid of the Moon.

At this point, one has to wonder why the Aztecs referred to this pyramid as the Pyramid of the Moon. Directly below the five-tiered platform south of the pyramid is a plaza surrounded by nine pyramidal platforms and the Palace of the Jaguars. Aligned to the Hudson Bay pole the layout of these structures around the plaza become evident. The summer solstice sun would have risen and set in between the two pairs of pyramids to the northeast and northwest, respectively. The angular separation between the two pyramids to the northeast and the two pyramids to the northwest bracket the range of maximum and minimum lunar moonrises and moonsets.

Based their arrangement along the Avenue of the Dead, it is likely the construction of the Pyramid of the Sun, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, and Palace of the Jaguars began just before the last pole shift from Hudson Bay.

Concerning the Temple of the Feathered Serpent, Marco Vigato states:

“The ruins that survive today make it abundantly clear, however, that in the long sequence of construction of the site, the earliest layers almost invariably show the greatest complexity and sophistication. It is therefore even more surprising to find evidence among the earliest layers of construction of an entirely different style of architecture employing enormous, finely cut and polished blocks of stone, which could very well be called megalithic.” [4]

He goes on to say:

“The unfinished state of the monolith of Coatlinchan and of the countless megalithic stone blocks that lie scattered around the site of Teotihuacán are suggestive of the sudden arrival and departure of a very technically advanced elite: Over the following centuries, construction resumed and continued at Teotihuacán, although in much cruder form, recycling many of the megalithic stones and structures left behind by the original builders.”

Based on Vigato’s findings it is possible that the Temple of the Feathered Serpent was never completed. If the Hudson Bay pole shift were sudden the effect would have been catastrophic in certain parts of the world especially northern Mexico. Teotihuacán would have suffered extensive damage but like other sites in the world discussed in Before Atlantis, it probably would have been rebuilt in a manner consistent with the original site plan.

The Goddess of Water

The location of Pyramid of the Moon at the top of the Avenue of the Dead suggests Teotihuacán was itself dedicated to Chalchiuitlicue the goddess of water. Water was the agent of the destruction of the world both in Plato’s tale of Atlantis and the Aztec’s legend of the Five Suns. It is also thought to have been abundant at one time in Teotihuacán.

When the North Pole was in Hudson Bay Teotihuacán was 3500 km north of its present location. Its climate was temperate, perhaps not unlike that of the northern United States. With ample rainfall aquifers that have long since dried up might have supplied Teotihuacán with great quantities of water.

In excavating the square surrounding Teotihuacán’s Pyramid of the Moon, Verónica Ortega found canals and pool-like cavities located beneath the square, alongside statues of water gods, from which she has concluded that the entire city was built as a sanctuary dedicated to the worship of water. “If there was a city in the ancient world where water was worshipped, it was Teotihuacan.” [5]. According to Ortega, a mural found inside the Palace of the Jaguars depicts streams of water flowing from a pyramid-like structure.

An extensive network of tunnels and caves under Teotihuacan are thought to have carried water throughout the city and are currently an active area of investigation.


[1] Ivan Šprajc, “Astronomical Alignments at Teotihuacan, Mexico,”  Latin American Antiquity, December 2000, https://doi.org/10.2307/972004.

[2] Anthony Aveni, Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico (Austin and London: University of Texas Press, 1980).

[3] Angela M.H. Schuster, “New Tomb at Teotihuacan,” Archaeology Archive, 1998.

[4] Marco Vigato, “The Rome of America: What Lies Under Teotihuacan? – The Real City of the God,” Ancient Origins, Feb. 2017.

[5] https://www.history.com/news/scholar-claims-worship-of-water-explains-mexicos-ancient-city


An Analysis of Certain Alignments at Chimalacatlán

In this article, we examine the alignments of certain structures at Chimalacatlán that suggest it might be the oldest archaeological site in Mesoamerica.

Buried Cities, Forgotten Gods

William Niven was a geologist and mineralogist who lived and worked in Mexico for more than five decades beginning in the late 19th century. Niven is perhaps best known for the clay tablets that he discovered in the 1920s, which were later popularized by James Churchward in his theory of a lost continent in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Less known were Niven’s explorations three decades earlier in the Mexican state of Guerrero.

While on a trip prospecting for a particular garnet known to exist in this part of Mexico, Niven learned of a ruined city in the mountains that had been discovered by Don Lorenzo Castro a few years earlier. After an unsuccessful attempt to reach the area in 1891 Niven returned a year and a half later to find

“Broken walls, ruined buildings, huge in size beyond comprehension… marked the slopes as far as the eye could reach. Once this was a rolling plateau, dropping gently away from the mountain wall, but now it is cut into giant ridges by gorges from 200 to 1,000 feet deep – gorges whose sides are scarred with broken buildings, ridges covered with ruins of great houses…” [1]


It is likely that some of the ruins Niven saw are those located near the town of Chimalacatlán. In “Lost Cities of the Mexican Highlands,” Marco Vigato compares the ruins in Chimalacatlán to those in South America

“Unlike the Andean region of South America, with its impressive megalithic architecture as in the region of Cuzco, capital of the Inca empire, and Tiwanaku, nothing on the scale of the impressive megalithic walls and constructions of Peru seems to have ever characterized Mesoamerican architecture. There is however one remarkable exception to this rule, which is as impressive in its monumentality and scale as it is also remarkably unknown to the public at large, including many of the very specialists in Mesoamerican archaeology and architecture. This is the case of the megalithic platforms and walls of Chimalacatlán, in the south of Morelos and near the border with the state of Guerrero.”

Vigato characterizes the archaeological site, which  is several kilometers southwest of the town of Chimalacatlán, as  “a set of dry stone platforms, placed at different levels, once connected through a system of monumental ramps and stairway” that form “a set of plazas at different levels, roughly following the profile of the natural elevation.”

Figure 1 Locations of three structures in the mountains southwest of Chimalacatlán that are discussed in this article. Chimalacatlán is the small town at the top of the image.

Three structures are visible in Google Earth imagery. C1 is a “megalithic acropolis” consisting of two stone platforms each about 30×30 meters in area whose “outer walls reach at least 7 to 8 meters high at the northwest corner and are entirely built of massive ashlars, some of which over 2.5 meters long. The construction is of remarkable quality and accuracy, consisting of several layers of carefully laid out and jointed megalithic stone blocks.” [2]

Figure 2 Southwestern side of structure C1.  Image courtesy Marco Vigato

C2 is at the summit of Cerro del Venado. Vigato describes the structure as being pyramid-like in appearance, “consisting of four super-imposed terraces, all sharing the same trapezoid shape with the exception of the top platform, which is a perfect square. Although some larger stones were employed in the construction of this pyramid, and a few well-cut stone blocks are visible on some of the terraces, the workmanship is generally poorer than the rest of the megalithic platforms, employing smaller and more irregular stones.” [2]

Figure 3 Northeastern side of structure C2. Image courtesy Marco Vigato.

C3 is on the Mesa del Venado near the entrance to the site. The walls of the structure are composed of mid-sized, roughly cut stones and are the least sophisticated in terms of the size and shape of the stones used suggesting the possibility that it was a later addition to the site.

Figure 4 One of the sides of structure C3. Image courtesy Marco Vigato.

Many have speculated that these ruins might be the remains of a mythical place called Tamoanchan, considered to be the cradle of all Mesoamerican civilizations. Is there a way to date Chimalacatlán based on the alignments of these structures?

Ancient Alignments

As discussed in Before Atlantis numerous sites in Mexico appear to have been aligned to ancient poles that are hypothesized to have once existed in Hudson Bay, Greenland, and the Norway Sea. For example, Teotihuacan is aligned to Hudson Bay, which based on current climate data could have been the location of the North Pole prior to the end of the last ice age, approximately 12,000 to 18,000 years ago. Tenochtitlan (today’s Mexico City) and Chichen Itza are aligned to locations in northern Greenland and the Norway Sea that could have been the locations of the North Pole at earlier climate epochs as far back as 75,000 years ago. By virtue of the alignments of these sites to older poles, we hypothesize that the sites are as old as poles.

Places in South America such as Cuzco and sites in Peru’s Sacred Valley and in other parts of the world appear to be aligned to an even older pole located north of the Aleutian Islands in the Bering Sea. Up to this point, no site in Mesoamerica had been found to be aligned in the direction of the Bering Sea pole, implying that Mesoamerica was not settled until after the Bering Sea to Norway Sea pole shift, which is estimated to have occurred about 125,000 years ago.

At Machu Picchu, the Temple of the Three Windows lines up with the Bering Sea pole. Similarly, at Ollantaytambo, the Wall of the Six Monoliths also faces that direction. Smaller less sophisticated structures at these sites are aligned in other directions. Figure 5 reveals that the megalithic acropolis at Chimalacatlán, the structure we call C1 is also aligned to the Bering Sea pole.

Figure 5 Alignment of structure C1 to the Bering Sea Pole.

C2, the pyramidal structure uphill from C1 also references the Bering Sea pole but in another way. Where C1 would have been oriented to the cardinal directions relative to the Bering Sea pole, i.e., to the sunrise on the equinox, C2 would have faced the most northern direction of moonrise and most southern direction of moonset  (Figure 6). The alignment of C3 is less clear but could have also been oriented to the moon at this time.

Figure 6 Structure C2 would have been aligned to major lunar standstills when the North Pole was in the Bering Sea.

Other Alignments

Using the Sacred Directions archaeoastronomy app it is possible to quickly assess other alignment possibilities. For example, moving the time slider forward in time to after the Bering Sea to Norway Sea pole shift, C2 became aligned both to the sun and the moon (Figure 7). This suggests the possibility that C2 could have been added later.

Figure 7 After the Bering Sea to Norway Sea pole shift C2 would have faced north with the diagonals of the top rectangular structure aligned to major lunar standstills.

Moving the time slider to the present time reveals a less ancient but equally plausible explanation in which all three structures line up to major lunar standstills. Perhaps like other sites such as Chan Chan in Peru that might have once faced an ancient north pole and were later repurposed as lunar sites after subsequent pole shifts, the same could be true for Chimalacatlán. If so,  evidence that the ancient people here worshipped the moon might be found in artifacts, iconography, or other sources of information. Otherwise, the possibility exists that the ruins at Chimalacatlán might be as old as those in Peru based on similarity in construction materials, technique, and alignment, and so could have been the first settlement in Mesoamerica.

In an article [3] published in 1896 by The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, Niven reported that ruins could be found in every foot-hill and mountain ridge over an area in excess of 900 square miles in this part of Mexico. If Chimalacatlán were once a part of Tamoanchan perhaps other sites can be found and analyzed in this context.


[1] Robert S. Wicks and Roland H. Harrison, Buried Cities, Forgotten Gods: William Niven’s Life of Discovery and Revolution in Mexico and the American Southwest, Texas Tech University Press, 1999.

[2] Marco Vigato,  “Lost Cities of the Mexican Highlands,” Uncharted Ruins.

[3] “Remarkable Discovery of the Ruins of a Prehistoric City in Mexico,” The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal Vols. 18-19, 1896.



Lunar Temples

We return to earth after our brief visit to the moon in the past couple of articles and examine sites that are aligned to the moon. 

Most people are familiar with the seasonal path of the sun – that it rises in the east and sets in the west, more or less. The motion of the moon, however, is more complex and perhaps, as a result, is seen as being more mysterious. (Professor Judith Young provides a nice explanation in her article Moon Teachings for the Masses.)

In this article, with the help of a newly developed archaeoastronomy app, we review sites from around the world that are aligned to the moon.


We start in Britain the home of Stonehenge, one of the most famous and enigmatic of all ancient sites. Although it is generally known when it was built, around 3100 BCE, no one knows exactly why it was built or by whom.

Around 2600 BCE a large stone known as the Heel Stone was added outside of the inner circle of stones and positioned so as to line up with the summer solstice sunrise when it is viewed from the center of the site. At the same time, four other outlying stones called Station Stones were arranged to form a rectangle around the central monument. One of the Station Stones was positioned in the direction of maximum southern moonrise, also called a major lunar standstill. Today, these alignments are off by about a degree due to the change in earth’s obliquity since the time they were set into place more than 4000 years ago.

Figure 1 Alignments at Stonehenge. Solstices are depicted as solid lines and lunar standstills as dotted lines. Time slider shows the direction of the alignments around 2600 BCE.

There are other sites in Britain that also appear to reference the motion of the moon. The Calanais Stones are in the Outer Hebrides in Scotland. The circle of stones, which is thought to have been set in place between 2600 and 2800 BCE has been interpreted by several researchers to have been used as a lunar observatory.

Figure 2 Alignments at Calanais around the same time as Stonehenge (2600 BCE).

Middle East

A little later in Mesopotamia King Ur-Nammu built a ziggurat dedicated to Nanna, the son of the two original Sumerian deities, Enlil and Ninlil. Nanna was the god of the moon and wisdom yet ironically the temple dedicated to him was called “Etemennigur,” which means “House whose foundation creates terror.” As shown in Figure 3 the Ziggurat of Ur is aligned in the direction of maximum northern major lunar moonrise and maximum southern major lunar moonset with best alignment achieved around the accepted time of construction, approximately 2100 BCE.

Figure 3 Alignment of the Ziggurat of Ur to major lunar standstills around 2100 BCE.


Few temples in India appear to be aligned to the moon. According to Sikh historical records, the land that became Amritsar was chosen by Guru Amar Das, the third Guru of the Sikh tradition. Arjan, the fifth Sikh guru, completed the Golden Temple in Amritsar in 1604. The overall layout of the site including the reflecting pools is consistent with the direction of minor lunar standstills. (Recall major standstills are the most northern and southern moonrises and moonsets and so minor standstills are the least northern and southern moonrises and moonsets.) What is unusual about the site is that the best alignment is achieved when the earth was at minimum obliquity, approximately 14,000 years ago (Figure 4). If the Golden Temple is aligned to the moon perhaps Amritsar had been an even earlier site of religious significance.

Figure 4 Alignment of the Golden Temple in Amritsar to minor lunar standstills.

Southeast Asia

Continuing east, the Khmer empire constructed monumental cities and religious sites in Cambodia around a thousand years ago. Where most places including Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom are aligned to the cardinal direction, others such as Preah Khan and Koh Ker are not.

Preah Khan of Kompong Svay is approximately 100 km east of Angkor Wat. It consists of a series of four concentric rectangular enclosures that contain temples, buildings, and a central sanctuary. According to Giulio Magli the site is aligned to the moon, specifically to the northern major lunar standstill. Based on a single dated inscription, the site is thought to have been built around 1000 CE, which turns out to be consistent with the alignments in Figure 5.

Figure 5 Alignment of Preah Khan to major lunar standstills.

Koh Ker is 50 km north, northwest of Preah Khan. In the same paper referenced above, Magli argues that Koh Ker is aligned in the direction of sunrise on the day when the sun rises directly over the site (zenith passage). Figure 6 suggests another possibility – that the site was aligned to the northern minor lunar standstill approximately 15,000 years when the earth was near minimum obliquity.

Figure 6 Alignment of Koh Ker to minor lunar standstills.

Central America

As discussed in Before Atlantis, Chichen Itza and Tulum are two sites in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula that might have been aligned to an earlier location of the North Pole in the Norway Sea. Many of the structures at Chichen Itza including the Caracol also appear aligned with major lunar standstills (Figure 7). The Caracol is believed to have been used as an observatory by the Maya who were familiar with the motions of the sun, moon, stars, and planets. The alignment of most structures at Tulum also appears to be aligned with major lunar standstills (Figure 8).

Figure 7 The Caracol at Chichen Itza is aligned to major lunar standstills.
Figure 8 Most structures at Tulum are aligned to major lunar standstills.

South America

Located in Peru, Chan Chan is believed to have been built around 850 CE by the Chimu culture. The etymology of the name is thought to be derived from the Quingnam “Jiang” or “Chang” which means Sun. The name could also be derived from the term: “Shian” where “Shi” translates as Moon and “An” as house, meaning House of the Moon.

As discussed in Before Atlantis, the orientation of Chan Chan correlates both the direction of the Norway pole and to major lunar standstills. One explanation that satisfies both the solar and lunar interpretations of its name is that the original site was constructed long ago when the North Pole was in the Norway Sea and so was originally aligned to the cardinal directions and to the sun. Later it was co-opted by the Chimu, who repurposed Chan Chan as a lunar site as a result of its serendipitous realignment to the moon.

Figure 9 Part of an extended area in Chan Chan aligned to major lunar standstills.

On a mountain top north of Machu Picchu lies a site called the Temple of the Moon that is built into an open-face, shallow cave. Like other places in Machu Picchu, the site is generally thought to have been arbitrarily named. Figure 10 shows the site in a Google Earth perspective view looking south.

Figure 10 View looking south from north of Huanya Picchu toward the Temple of the Moon.

Being in the tropics south of the equator the sun moves north after sunrise at certain times of the year and south at other times. The moon also travels north after moonrise at certain times of the year as well. The cave opening faces north and spans the maximum possible northern range of lunar motion (Figure 11). That the cave was oriented in this direction for the purpose of observing the moon would seem to be no accident.

Figure 11 The Temple of the Moon faces north, which is not visible in the view. The blue dotted lines depict the full range of lunar motion visible from the cave opening.

North America

We complete our journey around the world in North America and examine two Native American sites that appear to be aligned to the moon.

Ocmulgee Mounds National Historical Park in Georgia contains the remains of major earthworks built before 1000 CE by the South Appalachian Mississippian culture that includes the Great Temple Mound and other ceremonial mounds, a burial mound, and defensive trenches. Evidence suggests the site has been continuously occupied for 17,000 years. As shown in Figure 12 The Great Temple Mound appears to be aligned to the southern minor lunar standstill. The nearby Lesser Temple Mound also appears to be similarly aligned. Lunar alignments are thought to exist at Cahokia another Mississippian site in Illinois as well.

Figure 12 Alignment of the Great Temple Mound at Ocmulgee to minor lunar standstills.

Pueblo del Arroyo is an archaeological site in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The structure was a “great house” built in the latter part of the 11th Century by the Ancestral Puebloan or Anasazi people, who are thought to have built many structures in alignment with lunar and solar (seasonal) cycles. Given the flatness of the surrounding terrain, the location of the site would seem to take full advantage of its alignment to the southern maximum moonrise and northern maximum moonset (Figure 13).

Figure 13 Alignment of Pueblo del Arroyo in Chaco Canyon to major lunar standstills.


Numerous sites all over the world are aligned to the moon. Where the seasonal path of the sun is easily discernible, the complex motion of the moon, which repeats in 18.6-year cycles would have required dedicated observation over a much longer period of time. Although it is possible that the builders of these and other sites that are aligned to the moon did independently discern the complexity of lunar cycles it is also possible that this knowledge was inherited from an earlier people, perhaps from an unknown and highly advanced civilization that existed long ago. 

An Alternative SETI Strategy for the Moon

After decades of increasingly more detailed photoreconnaissance of the moon, we have yet to discover compelling evidence of alien objects or structures on the surface. Many features that at first attract our attention are at the limits of resolution or are viewed at unfamiliar sun angles or highly oblique look angles. Under different conditions or in higher resolution images, most turn out to be craters, rock outcrops, or other natural features. 

Carl Sagan was one of the first scientists to suggest the possibility of extraterrestrial activity on the moon. In the 1960s William Blair announced the discovery of “lunar spires” that turned out to be large boulders lit at a low sun angle casting long shadows that looked like towers. George Leonard and Fred Steckling believed they had found extensive evidence of alien activity on the moon, which they described in their books Somebody Else is on the Moon and We Discovered Alien Bases on the Moon. Richard Hoagland argued that there were enormous towers and glass structures visible in Lunar Orbiter and Apollo photography. Attempts to locate these features, in particular, one known as “the shard”, were not successful.

In a previous post, we searched for evidence of a “monolith” that the Soviet Union claimed their Lunokhod 2 rover had found, photographed, and analyzed in 1973. Other possible structures purported to have been found on the moon have been investigated and determined to be optical illusions. One was a tower on the edge of the crater Lobachevsky first spotted by Johannes Fiebag. Higher resolution imagery revealed that the impression of a tower was created by a pattern of dark crater ejecta material and a reflection off the rim of the crater. Another was what appeared to be a bridge at the edge of the Sea of Crisis that turned out to be an optical illusion caused by the interplay of shadows.

Lunar Archaeology

In 1990 a colleague of mine and I first proposed the idea of using anomaly detection algorithms to search for artificial objects on planetary surfaces. Alexey Arkhipov described several such algorithms and provided a listing of more than a hundred “finds” or anomalies detected on the moon in Clementine imagery. Arkhipov’s paper “Towards Lunar Archaeology” is a blueprint for lunar SETI:

“Our Moon is a potential indicator of a possible alien presence near the Earth at some time during the past 4 billion years. To ascertain the presence of alien artifacts, a survey for ruin- like formations on the Moon has been carried out as a precursor to lunar archaeology. Computer algorithms for semi-automatic, archaeological photo-reconnaissance are discussed. About 80,000 Clementine lunar orbital images have been processed, and a number of quasi-rectangular patterns found. Morphological analysis of these patterns leads to possible reconstructions of their evolution in terms of erosion. Two scenarios are considered: 1) the collapse of subsurface quasi-rectangular systems of caverns, and 2) the erosion of hills with quasi-rectangular lattices of lineaments. We also note the presence of embankment-like, quadrangular, hollow hills with rectangular depressions nearby. Tectonic (geologic) interpretations of these features are considered. The similarity of these patterns to terrestrial archaeological sites and proposed lunar base concepts suggest the need for further study and future in situ exploration.”

Some of the rectangular features Arkhipov discusses appear to be related to patterns on the lunar surface known as the lunar grid, which was explored by Fielder and others.

Lacking evidence of ET activity on the surface leads to the question of whether or not there might be activity underground. In 2017 Ananda Sirisena, Fran Ridge, and I showed that certain features first imaged by Apollo in the crater Paracelsus C on the far side of the moon are present in more recent Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) imagery and appear even more remarkable up close. 3-D analysis suggests that one of the features may be an opening leading underground.

Lava Tubes

The idea of underground lunar settlements or bases is gaining support after the discovery of lava tubes on the moon by the Japanese Kaguya spacecraft in 2008. It appears that many long sinuous features on the moon called rilles are collapsed lava tubes. The existence of a lava tube is sometimes revealed by the presence of a “skylight,” a place in which the roof of the tube has collapsed, leaving a circular hole.

LRO has found hundreds of skylights. The Chandrayaan-1 orbiter imaged a lunar rille with an uncollapsed segment suggesting the presence of a lava tube near the lunar equator. Gravitometric observations by the GRAIL spacecraft suggest the presence of lunar lava tubes with widths of over 1 km. 

Large underground spaces the size of cities are possible. Assuming a width-to-height ratio of 3:1, a structure can remain stable with a ceiling that is 2 m thick. Lava tubes at least 500 m underground can theoretically remain stable with widths of up to 5 km.

Transient Lunar Phenomena

For hundreds of years, astronomers have noticed strange features on the lunar surface. The first recorded sighting was a star-like point of light on the dark side in 1540. Other features that have been reported include small whitish clouds by Cassini in 1671, ‘lightning’ by Louville and Halley in 1715, ‘vapors’ by Schroter and Olber in 1797, brilliant flashing spots on the dark side by Gruithuisen in 1821, dots and streaks of light by Slack and Ingall in 1869, a glow of light in the crater Plato by Fauth in 1907, a moving luminous speck near Gassendi by Haas in 1941, a pulsating spot on dark side by Emanuel and others in 1965, and hundreds more. In 1968, NASA published a compendium of these so-called lunar transient phenomena (LTP) sightings in a report entitled, Chronological Catalog of Reported Lunar Events.

A majority of TLP events occur near the maria, which is where many lava tubes are located. Could there be a spatial correlation between TLP events and skylights? 

Correlation of TLP events (green dots) with locations of skylights. 

If there were underground bases on the moon that were accessed through skylights one possible alternative SETI strategy might be to image skylights continuously, or at least as frequently as possible, to attempt to detect such activities.

Thermal Anomaly Detection

One of the instruments aboard LRO is the Diviner Lunar Radiometer that has mapped the global thermal state of the Moon and its diurnal and seasonal variability. If there is an active presence below the surface of the moon it is likely generating heat. Another alternative SETI strategy finds underground activity on the moon using thermal imagery. By correlating optical and thermal imagery it is possible to detect thermal anomalies – areas in an image that are different from the natural background that could be indicative of underground heat sources.


NASA’s recent technosignatures report proposes a new approach to SETI based on advanced technologies, future sensor capabilities, and crowdsourcing. Unfortunately, the report reads much the same way as previous SETI strategies that can be characterized as a search for ETs either a long time ago, or in a galaxy far, far away.

That reports of TLP and related events have persisted for hundreds of years suggests a more exciting and potentially more relevant strategy to look for signs of an extant intelligence underground. The benefit of this strategy is that even if we don’t find alien bases we might, in the process, find some good places to build our own.

Feature image courtesy V101 Science.

In Search of the Lunokhod “Monolith”

In this article, we digress from our investigation of ancient mysteries on Earth to examine an unresolved mystery on the moon. 

Half a century ago Apollo landed the first men on the moon. A few years later the Soviet Union continued their unmanned exploration program with the landing of the Luna 21/Lunokhod 2 spacecraft in the crater Le Monnier. A month later, on Thursday, February 15, 1973, the Soviet news agency Tass reported that the Lunokhod 2 was investigating “an unusual piece of lunar material.” The report stated that a “one-meter long plate, resembling a modern house panel, has proven to be a strong monolith” and goes on to describe the plate as having “a smooth surface.”  An article in the January-February 1973 issue of the  ARPO Bulletin contained excerpts from a story in the February 19 issue of Soviet Aerospace:

“The article [in Soviet Aerospace] stated that the ‘stone plate which has so puzzled scientists’ has a smooth surface which is unlike the large stones in the area and that it withstood ‘the buggy’s pressure of a hundred atmospheres’ (1,407 lb. per square inch) which left only slight traces on the thin layer of dust which covered the plate. Also, the article said, scientists have determined that the plate ‘seems much younger’ than other stone material in the area.”

“Because of the monolith’s uniqueness, scientists decided to continue to investigate it to determine its chemical composition and magnetic properties, as well as transmit TV photos. The object was found on February 13 and plans were made to continue the investigation through the 16th. The bedrock in the immediate area was described as being different from the material observed and tested earlier and because the monolith is also so different from the surrounding bedrock the scientists were wondering if such a combination is accidental.”

News of this discovery was also reported by NASA:

“A monolith one meter (three feet) long of unusual lunar material was discovered Feb. 13. The plate had a strong, smooth surface unlike surrounding pockmarked stones and appeared to be much younger.”

Figure 1 Western section of Lunokhod 2 route. From Stooke (2009). Click on image for full resolution view.

Figure 1 summarizes the first three months of the probe’s operation on the moon. According to Phillip Stooke in the International Atlas of Lunar Exploration

“From 12 to 16 February the rover parked near a large fresh boulder as the high Sun made visibility difficult. The rover then drove rapidly south to the nearby hills where it took new panoramic images and performed experiments.”

This is when, according to both the Tass and Soviet Aerospace stories, the rover was analyzing and taking photos of the monolith. The location of the rover over this period of time is marked in the figure with the label “12-2-73 to 16-2-73 X, P” where “X” and “P” indicate that x-ray fluorescence spectrometer measurements and panoramic photographs were taken, presumably after the rover had left the shade of the boulder and traveled south.

The Laboratory for Comparative Planetology website lists 92 pan photos captured in 44 sessions. The map in Figure 1 plus three other maps depicting the later movement of the rover show 26 locations where photos were taken. Stooke states that the map does not list all of the panoramas. It is also not clear if the website includes all of the photos that were taken.

Most of the panoramas show rolling, relatively featureless terrain. Figure 2 shows one of the photos taken during the second month (lunation) of lunar operations. Notice the angular rock in the center of the photo. The length of its shadow indicates the picture was taken late in the day, not around noon, when the rover was said to have been parked next to the large boulder. Other than Figure 2, none of the photos shows anything resembling a slab, let alone a monolith.

Figure 2 Lunokhod 2. Lunation 2. Session 14. Panorama 34. From Laboratory for Comparative Planetology. Click on image to enlarge.

If this rock encountered by the Lunokhod rover was so extraordinary why is there no photo of it? Was the announcement by Tass simply propaganda – an attempt to match the accomplishments of the US Apollo program? Or did the Soviets discover something remarkable on the moon, so remarkable that the photos and scientific data were withheld from their own scientists and the international community?

Where on the Moon?

After exhausting the available historical data we have reached a dead end. Still, it might be possible to use this information in conjunction with current imagery to search for the monolith using future probes.  The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has imaged numerous manned and unmanned spacecraft on the lunar surface including the Luna 21 lander (Figure 3).

Figure 3 Landing site is the bright area near the top of the image. Note track leading south (top to bottom). Click for full resolution view. NASA/ASU

The tracks left by the rover are also visible over much of the terrain, which can be viewed using ASU’s Quickmap viewer.  By correlating Figure 1 with LRO imagery we can determine the general area where the rover was parked from February 12-16. An area around 25.87°N 30.45° E is shown in Figure 4. This location, somewhat less than three miles from the landing site, is near several unusual rectangular craters but appears otherwise unremarkable.

Figure 4 Search area for the monolith. The Lunokhod 2 track runs top to bottom in the middle of the image. Click on image for full resolution view. NASA/ASU

Although it is not possible to image an object only a meter long from lunar orbit, it may be possible one day to revisit this area on the moon, now that we know where it is, and rediscover what Lunokhod might have found almost a half-century ago.

The author would like to thank Rick Sterling, Fran Ridge, and Ananda Sirisena for their contributions.

Top image from the move 2001: A Space Odyssey.


On the Alignment of Some Ancient Geoglyphs

The term geoglyph has become synonymous with almost any kind of large organized pattern on the ground. Some are the remains of ancient structures long since abandoned, others were created to express an idea, perhaps even to communicate some kind of message. Most defy explanation either in terms of what they represent or attempt to communicate, how they were constructed, or for whom were they intended. 

A previous post examined a geoglyph known as the Badlands Guardian east of Medicine Hat, in Alberta, Canada. The Badlands Guardian is thought by many to be simply an example of a hollow-face illusion resulting from natural erosional processes. We showed that this feature is oriented to the cardinal directions and by virtue of its orientation with respect to the path of the sun will tend to maintain its facial appearance over the course of the year.

In this article, we discuss the alignment of other geoglyphs aligned to the poles (i.e., north-south) and to other geographic locations.

Directional Markers in the Southern Hemisphere

Those of us who live in the northern hemisphere forget that the southern hemisphere currently has no pole star. The Paracas Candelabra is on the north side of a hill on Peru’s Paracas Peninsula. Lacking a celestial reference to north, the Candelabra faces within a couple of degrees of due south (Figure 1). Almost two hundred meters tall, the geoglyph would have provided ancient mariners with a directional reference that can be seen twenty kilometers out at sea.

Figure 1 The Paracas Candelabra is oriented to within a couple of degrees of due south. It is even more closely aligned to the Hudson Bay pole (magenta line). Google Earth

More than a thousand kilometers southeast of Paracas in the northern Atacama Desert near the town of Pintados Chile lie an assortment of geometric, anthropometric, and animal forms on the side of a hill. These figures are smaller, on the order of tens of meters in size. One is an arrow that points due south (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Arrow on Cerro Pintados is aligned exactly north-south. Google Earth

Unlike these features rendered on hillsides that can be seen at ground level, the following geoglyphs can only be seen from above.

Blythe Intaglios

The Blythe Intaglios are a number of large biomorphic glyphs etched into the ground in California along the Colorado River. Three are humanoid forms with outstretched arms. One is aligned to the north (Figure 3). A second figure is aligned with a third that, in turn, points north, northeast. There is also a fourth humanoid figure forty kilometers due east in Bouse AZ that faces south.

Figure 3 Blythe Intaglios. One of the humanoid figures faces due north. The animal figure to the southeast is aligned approximately in the direction of the winter solstice sunrise/summer solstice sunset. Google Earth

None of these figures can be fully visualized at ground level. There are no hills high enough or close enough to be able to see these features from above. The inescapable conclusion is that they were built for someone who could view them from the air.

Figure 4 Overview of Blythe Intaglios showing the alignments of the three humanoid figures to the north (white), the Hudson Bay pole (magenta), and one to another (orange). Google Earth

Charles Hapgood proposed that the ice ages were caused by shifts in the geographic location of Earth’s poles. He hypothesized that the North Pole was near Hudson Bay during the last ice age. Figure 4 summarizes a series of inter-related alignments. The third humanoid figure mentioned above that points north, northeast is aligned to the Hudson Bay pole, which is approximately 31° east of north. The figure (a) is upside down with its feet facing the former pole. The second humanoid mentioned earlier and an adjacent animal figure are both in line with the third figure (a). The feet of the second figure face the third figure (b). It can be shown that this angle was in the direction of the winter solstice sunrise/summer solstice sunset when the North Pole was in Hudson Bay. This angle is approximately 43° south of east, which is greater than the current solstice angle of 28°. The difference is due to the fact the latitude of the site changed after the Hudson Bay pole shift. The animal figure (c) is rotated counterclockwise relative to (b). The first humanoid figure (e) is aligned to north. The adjacent animal figure is aligned in the current solstice direction (d) as shown in Figure 3. The difference in alignment between the two animal figures (c) and (d)  is approximately 15°, which is equal to the difference between the solstice angles.

According to Hapgood, during the last ice age when the North Pole was in Hudson Bay, this part of the United States was ice-free with a much more temperate climate than it has today. Thus, unlike other parts of North America, the Southwest has probably been inhabited continuously for tens of thousands of years. Perhaps the alignment of these geoglyphs along with what they represent might be able to tell us something about the history of this part of the world over this period of time.

Nazca Lines

In Before Atlantis it was shown that the two brightest Nazca lines are aligned to two former hypothesized pole locations in the Bering Sea and the Norway Sea. Numerous sites in Peru including the ancient city of Cuzco were also once aligned with the Bering Sea pole.

Figure 5 Alignment of Nazca lines and geoglyphs. The red and yellow lines point to ancient poles in the Bering Sea and Norway Sea, respectively. The purple line points to Cuzco. Lines are offset to better show alignments. Google Earth

Although many explanations have been proposed for the alignments at Nazca, none have considered their relation to other sites, other geographic locations. Figure 5 shows the correlation of Nazca lines with the direction of the two former poles mentioned above and the city of Cuzco some 370 kilometers east, northeast of Nazca. One can find numerous linear features along the purple line that are oriented toward Cuzco.

An examination of the orientation of Nazca’s zoomorphic geoglyphs reveals that seven appear to be oriented with respect to Cuzco as well (Figure 6). The human figure sometimes called the Astronaut (top photo) faces toward Cuzco, as does the Heron. The Condor seems to be flying at a right angle relative to the direction Cuzco. The Dog and Parrot face away from Cuzco. The Spider is also aligned in the same general direction as is the Tree.

Figure 6 Alignment of Nazca glyphs relative to Cuzco. Google Earth

That at least some part of Nazca at some point in time referenced the ancient city of Cuzco is apparent. Although it is beyond the scope of this article to speculate about its purpose, one wonders whether the Nazca lines could have once been a kind of map to help guide someone or something approaching Cuzco in the air from the west?

Uffington White Horse

The Uffington White Horse is located on a hillside in Oxfordshire, England. The figure, deeply cut into the soil and filled with chalk, is oriented south, southwest. One theory for why the horse is aligned in this direction is that in midwinter the sun appears to overtake the horse, reflecting a mythological belief that the sun was carried across the sky on a horse or in a chariot.  We propose another explanation. If we draw a line between here and Stonehenge, the horse appears to be headed precisely in that direction (Figure 7). Dated to 1380 to 550 BCE, a relatively short time after the completion of the last phase of construction at Stonehenge around 1600 BCE, could the Uffington White Horse have been a directional marker pointing toward Stonehenge?

Figure 7 The Uffington White Horse appears to be galloping toward Stonehenge in the direction of the white horizontal line 48 kilometers away. Google Earth

Top image courtesy Marilyn Bridges.

Evidence of a Previous Temple at Dendera, Egypt

This article presents new astronomical evidence supporting the existence of an earlier temple at the site of the current temple of Hathor at Dendera in Egypt.

The temple of Hathor is west of the Nile River thirty miles north of Luxor. The construction of the present temple began in the first century BCE during the last Egyptian dynasty and was completed in the first century CE under Roman rule. 

The Egyptian goddess Hathor had many aspects: mother or consort of the sky god Horus, a symbol of femininity, a guide to the afterlife, and others. Hathor was often depicted as a cow, or a woman wearing a headdress of cow horns.

The temple and several nearby structures are oriented approximately 17° east of north. Too far north to be aligned to the Sun, Moon, or planets, it is believed the temple was aligned to the rising of a star or constellation associated with Hathor.

One possibility is the constellation Ursa Major, which the Egyptians saw as the representation of a bull, and a star in Ursa Major known as Alkaid. According to Jose Lull and Juan Antonio Belmonte in The Constellations of Ancient Egypt, 

“This star could have been used as a reference to establish the axes of several temples, such as that of Dendera, where Alkaid would presumably be the star mentioned in the hieroglyphic texts of the temple of Hathor…”

It is convenient to think of the stars existing on the inside of a celestial sphere. As Earth revolves on its axis, the stars appear to rotate around the celestial poles. At Dendera, the north celestial pole is 26° above the northern horizon. The point on the horizon 17° east of north along the major axis of the temple traces a circle 31.4° away from the north celestial pole. As shown in Figure 1 this path is currently about 10° away from Alkaid. Alkaid thus does not currently rise in line with the temple.

Figure 1 Current alignment of the Temple of Hathor to the celestial sphere.  Sky Publishing Corporation.

As the tilt of the Earth precesses over a 26,000-year orbit about the ecliptic pole, the north celestial pole follows the path of the dotted line in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Precession of the north celestial pole over the 26,000-year cycle. Sky Publishing Corporation.

There are two points along this path, two times during the precessional cycle when Alkaid rises directly in line with the Temple of Hathor (Figure 3). The most recent was when the current temple was built approximately 2000 years ago. At this point in time, the north celestial pole was between Polaris and Thuban and so there was no pole star. The second time was about 10,000 years ago when the pole star was in the constellation Hercules.

Figure 3 Alkaid aligns twice to Temple of Hathor at Dendera during the 26,000-year precessional period. Sky Publishing Corporation.

Interpretations of hieroglyphics in the temple and the zodiac of Dendera attach special importance to the astrological sign of Cancer. In contrast to Greek and Babylonian zodiacs, Cancer is placed at the center of the Dendera zodiac. One theory is that the Egyptian civilization began during the age of Cancer. At this time about 10,000 years ago the pole star was in Hercules and Alkaid rose in line with the major axis of the temple just as it did 2000 years ago when the current temple was built  (Figure 4).

Figure 4 Alkaid just above the horizon in alignment with the major axis of the Temple of Hathor. Your Horizon

How is it that the Temple of Hathor aligns with its celestial counterpart Alkaid on these two particular dates?

According to John Anthony West in The Traveler’s Guide to Ancient Egypt

“Like virtually all Egyptian temples, Dendera is built upon the site of a succession of earlier temples. An inscription over one of its subterranean crypts (this one not open to the public) declares the temple had been built ‘according to a plan written in ancient writing upon a goatskin scroll from the time of the Companions of Horus.’ Thus, Ptolemaic architects from the first century B.C. were claiming that the architectural plan for the temple dated to the legendary prehistoric era when the ‘Companions of Horus’ ruled Egypt.”

Concerning this time West states

“The Greek and Roman writers of antiquity, basing their accounts on information received either first- or second-hand from Egyptian sources, claimed far greater antiquity for the civilization of Egypt than that currently established by Egyptologists. These Egyptian sources claimed vast time scales (estimates ranging from 24,000 and 36,000 years) during which Egypt was civilized and ruled respectively by the netterw themselves and by the Shemsu Hor, the companions or followers of Hours.”

Let us evaluate the alignment of the Temple of Hathor in a broader prehistorical timeline. As described in Before Atlantis, inspired by Charles Hapgood’s crustal shift hypothesis, we have computed four past locations of the North Pole based on the alignment of over fifty sites throughout the world. The oldest pole location is in the Bering Sea north of the Aleutian Islands. It turns out that the major axis of the Temple of Hathor points directly toward the Bering Sea pole. By virtue of its association with this ancient pole, this site could be much older than is currently thought.

Figure 4. Temple of Hathor is aligned to the Bering Sea pole. Google Earth

We propose a new chronology where the site was originally aligned to the north when the pole was in the Bering Sea approximately 125,000 years ago. After the Bering Sea to Norway Sea and subsequent pole shifts, the site became misaligned to the north. At the start of their civilization, the ancient Egyptians, the followers of Horus, co-opted what was already an ancient site. Aligned then with Ursa Major and Alkaid, a temple to the star’s terrestrial counterpart, the goddess Hathor, was built. (In Before Atlantis we propose a similar explanation for the alignment of the Parthenon and its relation to the Greek goddess Athena.) With knowledge of precessional motion, thousands of years later, the Egyptians rebuilt the temple when it again became aligned to Alkaid.

If this explanation is correct then the original site could have been established more than 100,000 years by the mythical netterw who, like Augustus LePlongeon’s naacal, were not gods but an advanced technological civilization that had developed from earlier human sub-species out of Africa 200,000 to 300,00 years ago.

Feature photo courtesy Marilyn Bridges.